HTML 5 Notes For Professional – Chapter – 5 (Text Formatting)

While most hypertext markup language tags are accustomed to produce components, hypertext markup language conjointly provides in-text format tags to use specific text-related designs to parts of the text. This topic includes examples of HTML text formatting such as highlighting, bolding, underlining, subscript, and stricken text.

Highlighting

The <mark> element is new in HTML5 and is used to mark or highlight text in a document “due to its relevance in another context”.

The most common example would be in the results of a search where the user has entered a search query and results are shown highlighting the desired query.

<p>Here is some content from an article that contains the <mark>searched query</mark> that we are looking for. Highlighting the text will make it easier for the user to find what they are looking for.</p>

Output:

Here is some content from an article that contains the searched query that we are looking for. Highlighting the text will make it easier for the user to find what they are looking for.

Common standard formatting is black text on a yellow background, but this can be changed with CSS.

Bold, Italic, and Underline

Bold Text

To bold text, use the <strong> or <b> tags:

<strong>Bold Text Here</strong>

or

<b>Bold Text Here</b>

What’s the difference? Semantics. <strong> is used to indicate that the text is fundamentally or semantically important to the surrounding text, while <b> indicates no such importance and simply represents text that should be bolded.

If you were to use <b> a text-to-speech program would not say the word(s) any differently than any of the other words around it – you are simply drawing attention to them without adding any additional importance. By using <strong>, though, the same program would want to speak those word(s) with a different tone of voice to convey that the text is important in some way.

Italic Text

To italicize text, use the <em> or <i> tags:

<em>Italicized Text Here</em>

or

<i>Italicized Text Here</i>

What’s the difference? Semantics. <em> is used to indicate that the text should have the extra emphasis that should be stressed, while <i> simply represents text which should be set off from the normal text around it.

For example, if you wanted to stress the action inside a sentence, one might do so by emphasizing it in italics via <em>: “Would you just submit the edit already?”

But if you were identifying a book or newspaper that you would normally italicize stylistically, you would simply use <i>: “I was forced to read Romeo and Juliet in high school.

Underlined Text

While the <u> element itself was deprecated in HTMl 4, it was reintroduced with alternate semantic meaning in HTML 5 – to represent an unarticulated, non-textual annotation. You might use such a rendering to indicate misspelled text on the page, or for a Chinese proper name mark.

<p>This paragraph contains some <u>mispelled</u> text.</p>

Abbreviation

To mark some expression as an abbreviation, use <abbr> tag:

<p>I like to write <abbr title="Hypertext Markup Language">HTML</abbr>!</p>

If present, the title attribute is used to present the full description of such abbreviation.

Inserted, Deleted, or Stricken

To mark text as inserted, use the <ins> tag:

<ins>New Text</ins>

To mark text as deleted, use the <del> tag:

<del>Deleted Text</del>

To strike through text, use the <s> tag:

<s>Struck-through text here</s>

Superscript and Subscript

To offset text either upward or downward you can use the tags <sup> and <sub>.

To create superscript:

<sup>superscript here</sup>

To create subscript:

<sub>subscript here</sub>

Continue to Chapter 6: Anchors and Hyperlinks

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